P. L. Carter
Research Chemist Emeritus
College of Engineering, Center for Environmental Research
University of California, Riverside, CA, USA
Phone: (951) 788-8425
Mailing Address: CE-CERT, University of California, Riverside CA 92521
Dr. Carter's research concerns the gas-phase atmospheric
volatile organic compounds (VOCs) and the assessment of differences
VOCs in their contributions to ozone formation in the atmosphere (their
reactivities). This includes development of chemical mechanisms for
models (the portions of the models which predict transformation of
in the atmosphere), evaluating these mechanisms using environmental
data, utilizing airshed models to develop ozone reactivity ranking
for VOCs, and conducting environmental chamber experiments to test the
mechanisms and evaluate VOC reactivities. Chemical mechanisms and VOC
scales he developed are used by a number of research groups and control
agencies. Dr. Carter has also developed an improved indoor
chamber facility for chemical mechanism evaluation at low pollutant
concentrations that is now being used for research related to VOC
mechanism evaluation, and secondary organic aerosol (SOA) formation.
Carter is author or co-author of approximately 100 journal articles and
approximately 100 technical reports in the areas of atmospheric
chemical mechanism development, and VOC reactivity assessment.
Selected Publications and Reports (see also Downloadable
Documents for downloadable technical reports)
Click here for Biographical Sketch (PDF) with full list of publications and reports (updated November 20, 2019)
- L. Vereecken, B. Aumont, I. Barnes, J.W. Bozzelli, M.J.
Goldman, W.H. Green, S. Madronich, M.R. Mcgillen, A. Mellouki, J.J.
Orlando, B. Picquet-Varrault, A.R. Rickard, W.R. Stockwell, T.J.
Wallington, and W.P.L. Carter, "Perspective on Mechanism Development
and Structure-Activity Relationships for Gas-Phase Atmospheric
Chemistry," Int J. Chem. Kinet. 60, 435-469, 2018
Kaduwela, D. Luecken, W. Carter, and R. Derwent, "New directions:
Atmospheric chemical mechanisms for the future," Atmos. Environ. 112,
- W.P.L. Carter, "Development of a database for
chemical mechanism assignments for volatile organic emissions," J. Air
& Waste Manage. Assoc., 65, 1171-1184, 2015
- W.P.L. Carter and G. Heo, "Development of revised SAPRC aromatics mechanisms," Atmos. Environ, 77, 404-414, 2013.
- W.P.L. Carter, G. Heo, D. R. Cocker III, and S. Nakao. "SOA Formation: Chamber Study and Model Development," Final report to California Air Resources Board Contract 08-326, May 29. 2012.
- W. P. L. Carter and J. H. Seinfeld. "Winter ozone
formation and VOC incremental reactivities in the Upper Green River
Basin of Wyoming," Atmos. Environ, 50, 255-266 (2012)
W. P. L. Carter. "Development of a Condensed SAPRC-07 Chemical Mechanism," Atmos Environ, 44, 5336-5345 (2010)
W. P. L. Carter. "Development of the SAPRC-07 Chemical Mechanism," Atmos Environ, 44, 5324-5335 (2010)
- W. P. L. Carter, D. R. Cocker III, D. R. Fitz, I. L. Malkina, K. Bumiller,
C. G. Sauer, J. T. Pisano, C. Bufalino, and Chen Song. "A New Environmental
Chamber for Evaluation of Gas-Phase Chemical Mechanisms and Secondary Aerosol
Formation," Atmos. Environ, 39 7768–7788 (2005).
W. P. L. Carter. "Documentation of the SAPRC-99
Chemical Mechanism for VOC Reactivity Assessment". Final Report to California
Air Resources Board Contract No. 92-329, and 95-308. May (2000).
- W. P. L. Carter, and R. Atkinson, "Development and Evaluation of a Detailed
Mechanism for the Atmospheric Reactions of Isoprene and NOx,"International
Journal of Chemical Kinetics, 28, 497-530 (1996)
W. P. L. Carter, "Computer Modeling of Environmental Chamber Studies of
Maximum Incremental Reactivities of Volatile Organic Compounds," Atmospheric
Environment, 29, 2513-2527, (1995)
W.P.L. Carter, J.A. Pierce, D. Luo, and I.L. Malkina, "Environmental Chamber
Studies of Maximum Incremental Reactivities of Volatile Organic Compounds,"
Environment, 29, 2499-2511, (1995)
W.P.L. Carter, "Development of Ozone Reactivity Scales for Volatile Organic
Compounds," Journal of the Air and Waste Management Association,
W.P.L. Carter and F.W. Lurmann, "Evaluation of a Detailed Gas Phase Atmospheric
Reaction Mechanism Using Environmental Chamber Data,"
W.P.L. Carter, "A Detailed Mechanism for the Gas-Phase Atmospheric Reactions
of Organic Compounds," Atmos. Environ., 24A, 481-518 (1990)
Related Internet Sites Maintained by W. P. L. Carter